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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Rationale of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Kidney Injury

  • Vincenzo Cantaluppi
    Affiliations
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Centre for Experimental Medical Research (CeRMS) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
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  • Luigi Biancone
    Affiliations
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Centre for Experimental Medical Research (CeRMS) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
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  • Alessandro Quercia
    Affiliations
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Centre for Experimental Medical Research (CeRMS) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
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  • Maria Chiara Deregibus
    Affiliations
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Centre for Experimental Medical Research (CeRMS) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
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  • Giuseppe Segoloni
    Affiliations
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Centre for Experimental Medical Research (CeRMS) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
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  • Giovanni Camussi
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Giovanni Camussi, MD, Cattedra di Nefrologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Ospedale Maggiore S. Giovanni Battista “Molinette”, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126, Torino, Italy
    Affiliations
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Centre for Experimental Medical Research (CeRMS) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
Published:August 31, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.05.027
      Numerous preclinical and clinical studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells, also known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), may improve pathologic conditions involving different organs. These beneficial effects initially were ascribed to the differentiation of MSCs into organ parenchymal cells. However, at least in the kidney, this is a very rare event and the kidney-protective effects of MSCs have been attributed mainly to paracrine mechanisms. MSCs release a number of trophic, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory factors that may limit kidney injury and favor recovery. In this article, we provide an overview of the biologic activities of MSCs that may be relevant for the treatment of kidney injury in the context of a case vignette concerning a patient at high immunologic risk who underwent a second kidney transplantation followed by the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute allograft rejection. We discuss the possible beneficial effect of MSC treatment in the light of preclinical and clinical data supporting the regenerative and immunomodulatory potential of MSCs.

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