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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Tests for Latent Tuberculosis in People With ESRD: A Systematic Review

Published:October 15, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.07.019

      Background

      The relative diagnostic accuracy of interferon γ release assays (IGRAs; based on ELISA [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay] or ELISPOT [enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot], ie, the QuantiFERON and T-SPOT.TB tests, respectively) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection in people with end-stage kidney disease is uncertain and national guidelines for their use are inconsistent.

      Study Design

      Systematic review.

      Selection Criteria for Studies

      Evaluated performance of tests for latent TB with clinical risk-factor assessment.

      Setting & Population

      People with end-stage kidney disease (chronic kidney disease stage 5 [eGFR <15] or kidney transplant recipients). No limits on setting.

      Index Tests

      ELISA- or ELISPOT-based IGRAs, TST, assays to detect antimycobacterial antibodies, and flow cytometry–based tests.

      Outcomes

      Odds of test positivity with clinical risk factor for latent TB, expressed as ORs and relative ORs (RORs).

      Results

      47 studies (6,828 participants) were included, but only 30 studies (4,546 participants) contained sufficient data to contribute to meta-analysis. Studies were predominately in the dialysis population (23/30; 3,700 participants) in countries with low to moderate TB prevalence (0.0-50.0 cases/105 persons). BCG vaccination rate was variable (2.7%-100.0%). 9 studies compared IGRAs with the TST directly, 17 studies evaluated the TST only, and the other 4 studies evaluated other tests. Compared to a positive TST result, a positive ELISA-based IGRA result was associated more strongly with radiologic evidence of past TB (ROR, 4.29; 95% CI, 1.83-10.3; P = 0.001) and contact with active TB (ROR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.61-7.01; P = 0.001). Compared to a negative TST result, a negative ELISA-based IGRA result was associated more strongly with BCG vaccination (ROR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.14-0.63; P = 0.002). There were insufficient data to compare performance of the ELISPOT-based IGRA with the TST or ELISA-based IGRA.

      Limitations

      17 of 47 included studies (36.2%) did not contain sufficient data to contribute to meta-analysis.

      Conclusions

      Compared to the TST, the ELISA-based IGRA was associated more strongly with risk factors for latent TB in end-stage kidney disease.

      Index Words

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