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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

The Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Individuals With Primary Glomerular Diseases

      Rationale & Objective

      Little is known about the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with various primary glomerular diseases. In a population-level cohort of adults with primary glomerular disease, we sought to describe the risk of CVD compared with the general population and the impact of traditional and kidney-related risk factors on CVD risk.

      Study Design

      Observational cohort study.

      Setting & Participants

      Adults with membranous nephropathy (n = 387), minimal change disease (n = 226), IgA nephropathy (n = 759), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 540) from a centralized pathology registry in British Columbia, Canada (2000-2012).

      Exposure

      Traditional CVD risk factors (diabetes, age, sex, dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, prior CVD) and kidney-related risk factors (type of glomerular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], proteinuria).

      Outcome

      A composite CVD outcome of coronary artery, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events, and death due to myocardial infarction or stroke.

      Analytical Approach

      Subdistribution hazards models to evaluate the outcome risk with non-CVD death treated as a competing event. Standardized incidence rates (SIR) calculated based on the age- and sex-matched general population.

      Results

      During a median 6.8 years of follow-up, 212 patients (11.1%) experienced the CVD outcome (10-year risk, 14.7% [95% CI, 12.8%-16.8%]). The incidence rate was high for the overall cohort (24.7 per 1,000 person-years) and for each disease type (range, 12.2-46.1 per 1,000 person-years), and was higher than that observed in the general population both overall (SIR, 2.46 [95% CI, 2.12-2.82]) and for each disease type (SIR range, 1.38-3.98). Disease type, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria were associated with a higher risk of CVD and, when added to a model with traditional risk factors, led to improvements in model fit (R2 of 14.3% vs 12.7%), risk discrimination (C-statistic of 0.81 vs 0.78; difference, 0.02 [95% CI, 0.01-0.04]), and continuous net reclassification improvement (0.4 [95% CI, 0.2-0.6]).

      Limitations

      Ascertainment of outcomes and comorbidities using administrative data.

      Conclusions

      Patients with primary glomerular disease have a high absolute risk of CVD that is approximately 2.5 times that of the general population. Consideration of eGFR, proteinuria, and type of glomerular disease may improve risk stratification of CVD risk in these individuals.

      Plain-Language Summary

      Patients with chronic kidney disease are known to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk in patients with primary glomerular diseases is poorly understood because these conditions are rare and require a kidney biopsy for diagnosis. In this study of 1,912 Canadian patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy, minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy, the rate of cardiovascular events was 2.5 times higher than in the general population and was high for each disease type. Consideration of disease type, kidney function, and proteinuria improved the prediction of cardiovascular events. In summary, our population-level study showed that patients with primary glomerular diseases have a high cardiovascular risk, and that inclusion of kidney-specific risk factors may improve risk stratification.

      Index Words

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