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Analgesics and the kidney: Summary and recommendations to the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Kidney Foundation from an ad hoc Committe of the National Kidney Foundation

  • William L. Henrich
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to William L. Henrich, MD, Professor and Chairman, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, PO Box 1008, Toledo, OH 43699.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Lawrence E. Agodoa
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Brendan Barrett
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • William M. Bennett
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Roland C. Blantz
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Vardaman M. Buckalew Jr
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Vivette D. D'Agati
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Marc E. DeBroe
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Geoffrey G. Duggin
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Garabed Eknoyan
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Monique M. Elseviers
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • R.Ariel Gomez
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Gary R. Matzke
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • George A. Porter
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Sandra Sabatin
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Jeffrey S. Stoff
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • Gary E. Striker
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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  • James F. Winchester
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH, USA

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Memorial University, St John's, NF, Canada

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, USA

    Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

    Renal Pathology Laboratory, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Nephrology-Hypertension, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Child Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

    Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Department of Physiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX, USA

    Renal Medicine Division, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA

    Division of Nephrology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
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      References

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        Statement on the release of ibuprofen as an over-the-counter medicine.
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