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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

Published:January 06, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.11.018

      Background

      Infection is a serious complication of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation. Kidney failure is as an independent risk factor for CIED infection and associated mortality. The presence of multiple comorbid conditions may contribute to varied clinical presentations and poor outcomes in hemodialysis (HD)-dependent patients with cardiac device infection.

      Study Design

      Case series.

      Setting & Participants

      CIED infections in HD patients (n = 17) and non-HD patients (n = 398) at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, between 1991 and 2008.

      Outcomes

      Surgical management and death.

      Measurements

      Clinical presentations, microbial organisms.

      Results

      Of 415 patients admitted with CIED infection, 17 (4%) were receiving maintenance HD therapy. Among those on HD therapy, mean age was 72 ± 15 (SD) years, 59% were women, and 53% had a central venous catheter for dialysis access. All 17 patients receiving HD therapy presented with CIED-associated bloodstream infection and 41% of these had infected vegetations on CIED leads or cardiac valves. A majority (82%) were managed with complete device removal and almost half (43%) received a replacement device when bloodstream infection cleared. Device infection was associated with significant short-term mortality in HD patients and 90-day survival was only 76% in this group of patients.

      Limitations

      Smaller sample size, majority white cohort, observational study.

      Conclusions

      CIED infection in patients receiving HD usually is associated with bloodstream infection and frequently is complicated with device-related endocarditis. Despite complete device removal in the majority of HD patients with infection, mortality remains high.

      Index Words

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