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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Hyperuricemia and Progression of CKD in Children and Adolescents: The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Cohort Study

      Background

      Hyperuricemia is associated with essential hypertension in children. No previous studies have evaluated the effect of hyperuricemia on progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children.

      Study Design

      Prospective observational cohort study.

      Setting & Participants

      Children and adolescents (n = 678 cross-sectional; n = 627 longitudinal) with a median age of 12.3 (IQR, 8.6-15.6) years enrolled at 52 North American sites of the CKiD (CKD in Children) Study.

      Predictor

      Serum uric acid level (<5.5, 5.5-7.5, and >7.5 mg/dL).

      Outcomes

      Composite end point of either >30% decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or initiation of renal replacement therapy.

      Measurements

      Age, sex, race, blood pressure status, GFR, CKD cause, urine protein-creatinine ratio (<0.5, 0.5-<2.0, and ≥2.0 mg/mg), age- and sex-specific body mass index > 95th percentile, use of diuretics, and serum uric acid level.

      Results

      Older age, male sex, lower GFR, and body mass index > 95th percentile were associated with higher uric acid levels. 162, 294, and 171 participants had initial uric acid levels < 5.5, 5.5 to 7.5, or >7.5 mg/dL, respectively. We observed 225 instances of the composite end point over 5 years. In a multivariable parametric time-to-event analysis, compared with participants with initial uric acid levels < 5.5 mg/dL, those with uric acid levels of 5.5 to 7.5 or >7.5 mg/dL had 17% shorter (relative time, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.11) or 38% shorter (relative time, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.85) times to event, respectively. Hypertension, lower GFR, glomerular CKD cause, and elevated urine protein-creatinine ratio were also associated with faster times to the composite end point.

      Limitations

      The study lacked sufficient data to examine how use of specific medications might influence serum uric acid levels and CKD progression.

      Conclusions

      Hyperuricemia is a previously undescribed independent risk factor for faster progression of CKD in children and adolescents. It is possible that treatment of children and adolescents with CKD with urate-lowering therapy could slow disease progression.

      Index Words

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