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Complete author and article information (including a list of the members of the TODAY Study Group) provided before references.
TODAY Study Group: The Clinical Centers comprise Baylor College of Medicine (S. McKay,∗ M. Haymond,∗ B. Anderson, C. Bush, S. Gunn, H. Holden, S.M. Jones, G. Jeha, S. McGirk, S. Thamotharan); Case Western Reserve University (L. Cuttler,∗ E. Abrams, T. Casey, W. Dahms [deceased], C. Ievers-Landis, B. Kaminski, M. Koontz, S. MacLeish, P. McGuigan, S. Narasimhan); Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (M. Geffner,∗ V. Barraza, N. Chang, B. Conrad, D. Dreimane, S. Estrada, L. Fisher, E. Fleury-Milfort, S. Hernandez, B. Hollen, F. Kaufman, E. Law, V. Mansilla, D. Miller, C. Muñoz, R. Ortiz, A. Ward, K. Wexler, Y.K. Xu, P. Yasuda); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (L. Levitt Katz,∗ R. Berkowitz, S. Boyd, B. Johnson, J. Kaplan, C. Keating, C. Lassiter, T. Lipman, G. McGinley, H. McKnight, B. Schwartzman, S. Willi); Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (S. Arslanian,∗ F. Bacha, S. Foster, B. Galvin, T. Hannon, A. Kriska, I. Libman, M. Marcus, K. Porter, T. Songer, E. Venditti); Columbia University Medical Center (R. Goland,∗ D. Gallagher, P. Kringas, N. Leibel, D. Ng, M. Ovalles, D. Seidman); Joslin Diabetes Center (L. Laffel,∗ A. Goebel-Fabbri, M. Hall, L. Higgins, J. Keady, M. Malloy, K. Milaszewski, L. Rasbach); Massachusetts General Hospital (D.M. Nathan,∗ A. Angelescu, L. Bissett, C. Ciccarelli, L. Delahanty, V. Goldman, O. Hardy, M. Larkin, L. Levitsky, R. McEachern, D. Norman, D. Nwosu, S. Park-Bennett, D. Richards, N. Sherry, B. Steiner); Saint Louis University (S. Tollefsen,∗ S. Carnes, D. Dempsher, D. Flomo, T. Whelan, B. Wolff); State University of New York Upstate Medical University (R. Weinstock,∗ D. Bowerman, S. Bristol, J. Bulger, J. Hartsig, R. Izquierdo, J. Kearns, R. Saletsky, P. Trief); University of Colorado Denver (P. Zeitler∗ [Steering Committee Chair], N. Abramson, A. Bradhurst, N. Celona-Jacobs, J. Higgins, M. Kelsey, G. Klingensmith, K. Nadeau, T. Witten); University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (K. Copeland∗ [Steering Committee Vice-Chair], E. Boss, R. Brown, J. Chadwick, L. Chalmers, S. Chernausek, A. Hebensperger, C. Macha, R. Newgent, A. Nordyke, D. Olson, T. Poulsen, L. Pratt, J. Preske, J. Schanuel, S. Sternlof); University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (J. Lynch,∗ N. Amodei, R. Barajas, C. Cody, D. Hale, J. Hernandez, C. Ibarra, E. Morales, S. Rivera, G. Rupert, A. Wauters); Washington University in St Louis (N. White,∗ A. Arbeláez, D. Flomo, J. Jones, T. Jones, M. Sadler, M. Tanner, A. Timpson, R. Welch); Yale University (S. Caprio,∗ M. Grey, C. Guandalini, S. Lavietes, P. Rose, A. Syme, W. Tamborlane). Coordinating Center: George Washington University Biostatistics Center (K. Hirst,∗ S. Edelstein, P. Feit, N. Grover, C. Long, L. Pyle). Project Office: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (B. Linder∗). The Central Units comprise the Central Blood Laboratory (Northwest Lipid Research Laboratories, University of Washington: S.M. Marcovina,∗ J. Harting), DEXA Reading Center (University of California at San Francisco: J. Shepherd,∗ B. Fan, L. Marquez, M. Sherman, J. Wang), Diet Assessment Center (University of South Carolina: M. Nichols,∗ E. Mayer-Davis, Y. Liu), Echocardiogram Reading Center (Johns Hopkins University: J. Lima,∗ S. Gidding, J. Puccella, E. Ricketts), Fundus Photography Reading Center (University of Wisconsin: R. Danis,∗ A. Domalpally, A. Goulding, S. Neill, P. Vargo) Lifestyle Program Core (Washington University: D. Wilfley,∗ D. Aldrich-Rasche, K. Franklin, C. Massmann, D. O’Brien, J. Patterson, T. Tibbs, D. Van Buren). Others: Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (M. Palmert); Medstar Research Institute, Washington, DC (R. Ratner); Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (D. Dremaine); University of Florida (J. Silverstein). ∗Indicates principal investigator or director.
Authors’ Full Names and Academic Degrees: Petter Bjornstad, MD, Edward Nehus, MD, MS, Laure El ghormli, MS, Fida Bacha, MD, Ingrid M. Libman, MD, PhD, Siripoom McKay, MD, Steven M. Willi, MD, Lori Laffel, MD, MPH, Silva Arslanian, MD, and Kristen J. Nadeau, MD.
Authors’ Contributions: Contributed to study design: EN, SA, KJN; data acquisition: FB, SM, SMW, LL, SA, KJN; data analysis/interpretation: PB, EN, LE, FB, IML, SM, SA, KJN, SMW, LL; statistical analysis: LE. Each author contributed important intellectual content during manuscript drafting or revision and accepts accountability for the overall work by ensuring that questions pertaining to the accuracy or integrity of any portion of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Support: This work was completed with funding from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)/National Institutes of Health grant numbers T32-DK063687 , U01-DK61212 , U01-DK61230 , U01-DK61239 , U01-DK61242 , and U01-DK61254 ; the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) General Clinical Research Centers Program grant numbers M01-RR00036 (Washington University School of Medicine), M01-RR00043-45 (Children’s Hospital Los Angeles), M01-RR00069 (University of Colorado Denver), M01-RR00084 (Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh), M01-RR01066 (Massachusetts General Hospital), M01-RR00125 (Yale University), and M01-RR14467 (University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center); and from the NCRR Clinical and Translational Science Awards grant numbers UL1-RR024134 (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia), UL1-RR024139 (Yale University), UL1-RR024153 (Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh), UL1-RR024989 (Case Western Reserve University), UL1-RR024992 (Washington University in St Louis), UL1-RR025758 (Massachusetts General Hospital), and UL1-RR025780 (University of Colorado Denver). NIDDK had no role in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; and writing the report. Drug and supplies donations in support of the study’s efforts were received from Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bristol-Myers Squibb; Eli Lilly and Company; GlaxoSmithKline; LifeScan, Inc; Pfizer; Sanofi Aventis. None of these companies had any role in any aspect of the study.
Financial Disclosure: The authors declare that they have no other relevant financial interests.