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Authors’ Full Names and Academic Degrees: Nien-Chen Li, MPH, Ravi I. Thadhani, MD, Marta Reviriego-Mendoza, PhD, John W. Larkin, MSc, Franklin W. Maddux, MD, and Norma J. Ofsthun, PhD.
Authors’ Contributions: Research idea and study design: NL, RIT, MRM, JWL, FWM, NJO; data acquisition: NL; data analysis/interpretation: NL, RIT, MRM, JWL, FWM, NJO; statistical analysis: NL; supervision or mentorship: RIT, FWM, NJO. Each author contributed important intellectual content during manuscript drafting or revision and accepts accountability for the overall work by ensuring that questions pertaining to the accuracy or integrity of any portion of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Support: This study was sponsored and funded by Fresenius Medical Care North America.
Financial Disclosure: Ms Li, Dr Reviriego-Mendoza, and Mr Larkin are employees of Fresenius Medical Care North America. Dr Thadhani is employed by Massachusetts General Hospital and Partners Healthcare; has consultancy agreements for Biogen Idec; is an independent research consultant of Fresenius Medical Care North America, Pfizer, Shire Human Genetics, and Celgene; has ownership interests in Aggamin LLC; receives research funding from the National Institutes of Health, Kaneka Corp, Diasorin, and ThermoFisher; received honoraria from Roche Diagnostics and ZS Pharma; has patents and invention interests that include ThermoFisher and Up-To-Date; and is a scientific advisor for Aggamin LLC. Dr Maddux is an employee of Fresenius Medical Care North America; has stock ownership in Fresenius Medical Care; has or recently had directorships in American National Bank & Trust, Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, Specialty Care, Inc, and Sound Physicians; is the Chairman of Pacific Care Renal Foundation 501c3 nonprofit; was recently the Chair of Kidney Care Partners; and was the founder of Scholarships Expanding Education 501c3 nonprofit. Dr Ofsthun is an employee of Fresenius Medical Care North America and has stock ownership in Fresenius Medical Care.
Peer Review: Received April 5, 2017. Evaluated by 3 external peer reviewers, with direct editorial input from a Statistics/Methods Editor, an Associate Editor, and the Editor-in-Chief. Accepted in revised form April 1, 2018.