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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Associations Between Kidney Disease Measures and Regional Pulse Wave Velocity in a Large Community-Based Cohort: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

  • Esther D. Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
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  • Hirofumi Tanaka
    Affiliations
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
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  • Shoshana H. Ballew
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
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  • Yingying Sang
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD
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  • Gerardo Heiss
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC
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  • Josef Coresh
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
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  • Kunihiro Matsushita
    Correspondence
    Address for Correspondence: Kunihiro Matsushita, MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, 2024 E Monument St, Ste 2-600, Baltimore, MD 21287.
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
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      Rationale & Objective

      Arterial stiffness is suggested as a mediator of cardiorenal interaction. However, previous studies reported inconsistent associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial stiffness and were limited by using either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and examining arterial stiffness at limited segments.

      Study Design

      Cross-sectional.

      Setting & Participants

      3,424 Atherosclerosis in Communities (ARIC) Study participants aged 66 to 90 years during 2011 to 2013.

      Predictors

      eGFR and ACR.

      Outcome

      Pulse wave velocity (PWV) at 6 segments: carotid-femoral (cfPWV), heart-carotid (hcPWV), and heart-femoral (hfPWV), reflecting central stiffness; heart-ankle (haPWV) and brachial-ankle (baPWV), representing both central and peripheral stiffness; and femoral-ankle (faPWV), indicating peripheral stiffness.

      Analytical Approach

      Multiple linear and logistic regression models to quantify the associations of eGFR and ACR with continuous PWV and elevated PWV (in the highest quartile), respectively.

      Results

      After adjusting for age, sex, and race, higher cfPWV and hfPWV were consistently associated with lower eGFR and higher ACR. Higher haPWV and baPWV were also observed with higher ACR. The independent association of both CKD measures with elevated cfPWV remained consistent after adjusting for additional confounders (ORs of elevated cfPWV were 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01-1.18] per 15-mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.07-1.33] per 4-fold higher ACR). Higher ACR was also associated with elevated hfPWV and haPWV (ORs per 4-fold higher ACR were 1.25 [95% CI, 1.12-1.39] for elevated hfPWV and 1.19 [95% CI, 1.06-1.33] for elevated haPWV). Lower eGFR was associated with lower odds of elevated baPWV and faPWV (ORs per 15–mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR were 0.92 [95% CI, 0.84-0.99] and 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99], respectively).

      Limitation

      Unable to address temporality between CKD measures and arterial stiffness.

      Conclusions

      Both lower eGFR and higher ACR are independently associated with measures of central arterial stiffness, with stronger associations for ACR over eGFR. Our findings suggest that central arterial stiffness may be an important pathophysiologic phenotype of vascular disease in CKD.

      Index Words

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