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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Kidney Transplantation in C3 Glomerulopathy: A Case Series

Published:November 07, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.09.002

      Rationale & Objective

      C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), a form of glomerulonephritis associated with dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway, occurs either as dense deposit disease (DDD) or C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). Few studies have reported outcomes of patients with C3G after transplantation since its formal classification and the advent of complement-targeting therapies such as eculizumab.

      Study Design

      Case series of C3G.

      Setting & Participants

      We reviewed laboratory testing, native and allograft biopsy reports, and clinical charts of the 19 patients (12, C3GN; and 7, DDD) from our C3G registry who underwent transplantation between 1999 and 2016.

      Results

      During a median follow-up of 76 months, 16 patients had recurrent disease (10 of 12, C3GN; and 6 of 7, DDD), with median time to recurrence of 14 months in C3GN versus 15 months in DDD. Graft failure was more frequent in patients with DDD (6 of 7) than in patients with C3GN (3 of 12), occurred at a median time of 42 months posttransplantation, and was attributed to recurrent disease in half the failures. A rare genetic variant or autoantibody associated with alternative complement pathway abnormalities was detected in 9 of 10 screened patients. Treatment of 7 patients (8 allografts) with eculizumab was associated with variable clinical outcomes.

      Limitations

      Incomplete testing for complement pathway abnormalities and genetic defects, incomplete records of HLA antigen matching, lack of centralized biopsy review, and limited sample size.

      Conclusions

      In a case series of C3G transplant recipients, the proportion of disease recurrence was high in both C3GN and DDD, although graft loss appeared to occur more frequently in DDD. In a small subset of study patients, eculizumab therapy was not consistently followed by salutary outcomes.

      Index Words

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