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Association of Low Birth Weight With Childhood Proteinuria at Age 3 Years: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

      Because of the increasing prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) in OECD member countries (6.6% in 2013; 9.6% in Japan), LBW (<2,500 g per the World Health Organization) is an important public health issue. LBW is not only associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, but also with inhibited growth, cognitive development, and chronic noninflammatory diseases in later life.
      • Barker D.J.
      • Bull A.R.
      • Osmond C.
      • Simmonds S.J.
      Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life.
      • Montgomery S.M.
      • Ekbom A.
      Smoking during pregnancy and diabetes mellitus in a British longitudinal birth cohort.
      Some studies have shown that LBW is associated with end-stage kidney disease.
      • White S.L.
      • Perkovic V.
      • Cass A.
      • et al.
      Is low birth weight an antecedent of CKD in later life? A systematic review of observational studies.
      However, evidence of the association between LBW and childhood proteinuria is not robust. The aim of this study, which is part of the Kobe Offspring Study in Japan, was to examine the association between birth weight and proteinuria at age 3 years.
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