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American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Supermarket Proximity and Risk of Hypertension, Diabetes, and CKD: A Retrospective Cohort Study

  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ G.G. and Y.G.T. contributed equally to this work.
    Gaurang Garg
    Correspondence
    Gaurang Garg, MD, 10755 Falls RoadSuite 200, Lutherville, MD 21093
    Footnotes
    ∗ G.G. and Y.G.T. contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ G.G. and Y.G.T. contributed equally to this work.
    Yacob G. Tedla
    Correspondence
    Address for Correspondence: Yacob G. Tedla, PhD, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 800, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37203
    Footnotes
    ∗ G.G. and Y.G.T. contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee
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  • Anika S. Ghosh
    Affiliations
    Center for Health Information Partnership, Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
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  • Dinushika Mohottige
    Affiliations
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Duke Clinical Research Institute, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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  • Marynia Kolak
    Affiliations
    Center for Spatial Data Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
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  • Myles Wolf
    Affiliations
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Duke Clinical Research Institute, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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  • Abel Kho
    Affiliations
    Center for Health Information Partnership, Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
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  • Author Footnotes
    ∗ G.G. and Y.G.T. contributed equally to this work.
Published:September 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2022.07.008

      Rationale & Objective

      Living in environments with low access to food may increase the risk of chronic diseases. We investigated the association of household distance to the nearest supermarket (as a measure of food access) with the incidence of hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a metropolitan area of the United States.

      Study Design

      Retrospective cohort study.

      Setting & Participants

      777,994 individuals without hypertension, diabetes, or CKD at baseline within the HealthLNK Data Repository, which contains electronic health records from 7 health care institutions in Chicago, Illinois.

      Exposure

      Zip code–level average distance between households and nearest supermarket.

      Outcome

      Incidence of hypertension, diabetes, and CKD based on presence of ICD-9 code and/or blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg, hemoglobin A1c ≥ 6.5%, and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively.

      Analytical Approach

      Average distance to nearest supermarket was aggregated from street-level metrics for 56 Chicagoland zip codes. The cumulative incidence of hypertension, diabetes, and CKD from 2007-2012 was calculated for each zip code in patients free of these diseases in 2006. Spatial analysis of food access and disease incidence was performed using bivariate local indicator of spatial association (BiLISA) maps and bivariate local Moran I statistics. The relationship between supermarket access and outcomes was analyzed using logistic regression.

      Results

      Of 777,994 participants, 408,608 developed hypertension, 51,380 developed diabetes, and 56,365 developed CKD. There was significant spatial overlap between average distance to supermarket and incidence of hypertension and diabetes but not CKD. Zip codes with large average supermarket distances and high incidence of hypertension and diabetes were clustered in southern and western neighborhoods. Models adjusted only for neighborhood factors (zip code–level racial composition, access to vehicles, median income) revealed significant associations between zip code–level average distance to supermarket and chronic disease incidence. Relative to tertile 1 (shortest distance), ORs in tertiles 2 and 3, respectively, were 1.27 (95% CI, 1.23-1.30) and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.33-1.43) for diabetes, 1.03 (95% CI, 1.02-1.05) and 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for hypertension, and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.15-1.21) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.29-1.37) for CKD. Models adjusted for demographic factors and health insurance showed significant and positive association with greater odds of incident diabetes (tertile 2: 1.29 [95% CI, 1.26-1.33]; tertile 3: 1.35 [95% CI, 1.31-1.39]) but lesser odds of hypertension (tertile 2: 0.95 [95% CI, 0.94-0.97]; tertile 3: 0.91 [95% CI, 0.89-0.92]) and CKD (tertile 2: 0.80 [95% CI, 0.78-0.82]; tertile 3: 0.73 [95% CI, 0.72-0.76]). After adjusting for both neighborhood and individual covariates, supermarket distance remained significantly associated with greater odds of diabetes and lesser odds of hypertension, but there was no significant association with CKD.

      Limitations

      Unmeasured neighborhood and social confounding variables, zip code–level analysis, and limited individual-level information.

      Conclusions

      There are significant disparities in supermarket proximity and incidence of hypertension, diabetes, and CKD in Chicago, Illinois. The relationship between supermarket access and chronic disease is largely explained by individual- and neighborhood-level factors.

      Index Words

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