Core Curriculum in Nephrology
Installments of the Core Curriculum in Nephrology provide trainees in nephrology with a strong knowledge base in core topics in the specialty by providing an overview of the topic and citing key references, including the foundational literature that led to current clinical approaches.
- The kidney biopsy is an essential tool for diagnosis of many kidney diseases. Obtaining an adequate biopsy sample with appropriate allocation for various studies is essential. Nephrologists should understand key lesions and their interpretation because these are essential elements underlying optimal approaches for interventions. This installment in the AJKD Core Curriculum in Nephrology will review these topics. We will first briefly discuss considerations for allocation and processing of kidney biopsies.
- There are approximately 1 million glomeruli in each human kidney. Each glomerulus is composed of a tuft of capillary loops supported by the mesangium and enclosed in a pouch-like extension of the renal tubule of the nephron known as Bowman capsule. The glomerulus consists of 4 resident cell types: the mesangial cell, glomerular endothelial cell, visceral epithelial cell (podocyte), and parietal epithelial cell lining Bowman basement membrane. Recent experimental and clinical advances have identified the podocyte as the predominant cell of injury in glomerular diseases typified by heavy proteinuria, which is the focus of this article.