Core Curriculum in Nephrology
Installments of the Core Curriculum in Nephrology provide trainees in nephrology with a strong knowledge base in core topics in the specialty by providing an overview of the topic and citing key references, including the foundational literature that led to current clinical approaches.
- The most common cause of kidney failure in the United States and across the world is diabetes mellitus (DM). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) further increases overall CVD risk. It is important to individualize glycemic targets for patients to maintain glucose levels that will reduce the development and progression of complications while avoiding hypoglycemia. CKD alters the relationship of glucose levels to measures of long-term control, such as hemoglobin A1c.
- An estimated 8% to 16% of the world’s population has chronic kidney disease, defined by low glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria. Progression of chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse outcomes, including incident kidney failure with replacement therapy, accelerated cardiovascular disease, disability, and mortality. Therefore, slowing kidney function decline is paramount in the management of a patient with chronic kidney disease. Ascertaining the cause of kidney disease is an important first step and may compel specific therapies.
- Diabetic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy are the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in the United States and most developed countries. Diabetes accounts for 30% to 50% of the incident cases of end-stage kidney disease in the United States. Although this represents a significant public health concern, it is important to note that only 30% to 40% of patients with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. Specific treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy can be divided into 4 major arenas: cardiovascular risk reduction, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS).