Core Curriculum in Nephrology
Installments of the Core Curriculum in Nephrology provide trainees in nephrology with a strong knowledge base in core topics in the specialty by providing an overview of the topic and citing key references, including the foundational literature that led to current clinical approaches.
- As chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses, the requirements and utilization of different nutrients change substantially. These changes are accompanied by multiple nutritional and metabolic abnormalities that are observed in the continuum of kidney disease. To provide optimal care to patients with CKD, it is essential to have an understanding of the applicable nutritional principles: methods to assess nutritional status, establish patient-specific dietary needs, and prevent or treat potential or ongoing nutritional deficiencies and derangements.
- In the early days of dialysis, because of a lack of existing in-center infrastructure, home hemodialysis (HHD) was frequently used to expand dialysis programs. Recently, HHD has been thrust into the spotlight of kidney care programs once again. Patients and policymakers are demanding more choices for the management of kidney failure while controlling for cost. Perhaps it is not surprising that the kidney community's interest in HHD has been revived, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. To meet this increased interest and demand, nephrologists and dialysis providers must embrace new technologies and improve their understanding of HHD systems.
- Since maintenance hemodialysis (HD) first became available in the United States in 1962, there has been tremendous growth in the population of patients with kidney failure. HD has become a routine treatment carried out in outpatient clinics, hospitals, nursing facilities, and in patients’ homes. Although it is a complex procedure, HD is quite safe. Serious complications are uncommon due to the use of modern HD machines and water treatment systems as well as the development of strict protocols to monitor various aspects of the HD treatment.
- Electronic-based health care delivery systems are gaining popularity among patients and clinicians because of convenience. Importantly, telemedicine, the delivery of health care and/or health information using electronic systems, can deliver primary and specialized health care to geographically isolated patients, who account for nearly 20% of the US population. In nephrology, where a growing discrepancy exists between the geographic location of nephrologists and patients with kidney disease, telenephrology can bridge distance and deliver renal care and education to the isolated.
- Kidney transplantation is associated with improvement in quality of life and mortality as compared to remaining on dialysis. It is therefore the optimal treatment for kidney failure for most patients. While transplantation nephrologists typically care for the patient in the first 6 months posttransplantation, general nephrologists and internists often care for kidney transplant recipients after this period. Medical management of the kidney transplant recipient can be challenging, and primary care physicians and nephrologists may be unfamiliar with the medical nuances of caring for these patients.