- An understanding of the ethical underpinnings of human subjects research that involves some risk to participants without anticipated direct clinical benefit—such as the kidney biopsy procedure as part of the Kidney Precision Medicine Project (KPMP)—requires a critical examination of the risks as well as the diverse set of countervailing potential benefits to participants. This kind of deliberation has been foundational to the development and conduct of the KPMP. Herein, we use illustrative features of this research paradigm to develop a more comprehensive conceptualization of the types of benefits that may be important to research participants, including respecting pluralistic values, supporting the opportunity to act altruistically, and enhancing benefits to a participant’s community.
- We report a case of a patient who developed dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) after the use of canagliflozin. A 66-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who was recovering from left knee septic arthritis at a rehabilitation facility was admitted with oliguric AKI 5 days after starting treatment with canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). The patient presented with hematuria, non–nephrotic-range proteinuria, and serum creatinine level of 6.8 (baseline, 1.1-1.3) mg/dL.
- There is increasing appreciation of nephronophthisis (NPHP) as an autosomal recessive cause of kidney failure and earlier stages of chronic kidney disease among adults. We identified 2 families with presumed adult-diagnosed nonsyndromic NPHP and negative diagnostic genetic testing results from our Renal Genetics Clinic. Both had 2 affected siblings without extrarenal phenotypes. After informed consent, research whole-genome sequencing was undertaken. Biallelic NPHP4 variants were identified in trans and clinically confirmed in all 4 affected individuals, confirming a genetic diagnosis.
- A major challenge in the management of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the inability to identify patients at high risk for disease progression at an early stage. Our objective was to determine whether urinary matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) is a promising predictor for IgAN progression and whether its addition to clinical data at the time of biopsy improves risk prediction.
- The relationship between focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and pregnancy is complex and not completely elucidated. Pregnancy in patients with FSGS poses a high risk for complications, possibly due to hemodynamic factors, imbalance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, and hormonal conditioning. Although poor clinical outcomes associated with collapsing FSGS are common outside of pregnancy, the prognosis during pregnancy is not well documented. We report 3 patients who developed collapsing FSGS during pregnancy, 2 of whom had presumed underlying FSGS.
- C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) defines a group of rare complement-mediated kidney diseases with a shared underlying pathophysiology: dysregulation of complement in the fluid phase and glomerular microenvironment. Dysregulation can be driven by autoantibodies to C3 and C5 convertases.
- Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is a chronic kidney disease affecting rural inhabitants in Central America. We have previously described the renal morphology in 8 patients from El Salvador. To confirm the renal pathology, we have studied kidney biopsies from patients with MeN in Nicaragua. Follow-up urine and blood samples from both biopsy studies were collected to investigate the natural history.
- The incidence and distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies vary throughout the world and by race and ethnicity. We sought to evaluate the distribution of primary glomerulonephropathies among a large racially and ethnically diverse population of the United States.